Another type of face-to-face interview method based on a structured, questionnaire. Specific questions are asked in a set of order of manner.
Respondents's answers are immediately recorded on the Questionnaire form during interview process. Different with qualitative personal interviews, in Quantitative personal interviews, the interviewers have no chance to adjust the number of questions, the sequence or wording of the questions.
Personal interviews are traditionally carried out with paper and pencils, as well as with notebooks (CAPI - Computer Aided Personal Interview).
Personal interviews are usually performed through 2 popular survey styles based on how the interviewers approach the respondents: Door to Door or Intercept.
A. Intercept surveys may provide access to a much more diversified group of respondents from different geographic areas. Samples are approached at public places like malls, theaters, food courts.. or even on the street. As the method gather convenient samples, reliability levels can therefore not be calculated.
B. On the other hand, Door-to-Door survey is a Research model in which the interviewers approach different houses in a designated areas. Door-to-door survey commonly cover a geographically restricted area to target a group of respondents with relatively consistent demographic characteristics.
1. Well-trained Interviewers
Freelance interviewers are usually trained by Nusaresearch Research staff to adapt various contents of the Questionnaire.
Devoted in lightening questions to respondents, flexible in communication, able to interview in normal foreign languages (Bahasa).
2. Strong Fieldwork Team
With a large network covering all main cities and provinces in Indonesia, Nusaresearch Fieldwork team can access and recruit a variety of targeted respondents with different demographic conditions. Strong expertise in organizing and executing interviews, the functional team have served many Offline projects effectively, for both local and foreign clients.
Nusaresearch Fieldwork team making up:
Selection of Fieldworkers -> Training of Fieldworkers -> Supervision of Fieldworkers -> Validation of Fieldwork -> Evaluation of Fieldworkers.
3. Effective project management team
With deep understanding of Research methodology, Nusaresearch project management team can easily supervise the process of recruitment and interviews thoughtfully. The team flexibly plans resources and timing for Fieldwork, as well as carefully control sample quality to deliver the best data.
4. Fieldwork Quality Management Scheme1.1 Supervision of Fieldworkers
Nusaresearch project management team makes sure that Fieldworkers following the procedures and techniques in which they were trained.a) Quality control and editing
Supervisors in Nusaresearch project management team keep records of Fieldworkers's work process, providing advice to any interviewers having problems. Supervisors collect and examine the Questionnaires daily to make sure all appropriate questions have been completed, unsatisfactory and incomplete answers have not been accepted, and the writing is legible.b) Sampling Control:
Supervisors want to ensure that the interviewers are strictly following the sampling plan rather than selecting sampling units based on convenience or accessibility. Interviewers tend to avoid dwellings or sampling units that they perceive as difficult or undesirable. Somtimes interviewers stretch the requirements of quota samples. For example, a 60 year-old person may be placed in the 45 - 55 age category and interviewed to fulfill quota requirements. Nusaresearch supervisors keep daily records of the number of sample accesses, number of not-at-homes (Door-to-door survey), number of refusals, number of completed interviews for each interviewer, and the total of all interviewers under their control.c) Control of cheating
An interviewer may falsify partly or the whole answer of respondents to make it acceptable or may fake answers without contacting the respondents. W&S project management team minimize such cheating through proper training, supervision, and validation of fieldwork1.2 Validation of Fieldwork
Nusaresearch supervisors call 10 to 25 per cent of the respondents to inquire whether the fieldworkers actually conducted the interviews. Supervisors ask about the length and quality of the interview, reaction to the interviewer, and basic demographic data. The demographic information is cross-checked against the information reported by the interviewers on the questionnaires.1.3 Evaluation of Fieldwork a. Cost and time
Fieldwork time is broken down into categories such as actual interviewing, travel and administration, for easily checked and sticked to the initial plan.
Cost for fieldwork is forecasted in advance by Nusaresearch project management team, and controlled within real execution.
After Fieldwork, Nusaresearch project management team summarize and evaluate the process in a Cost Report.
Response rates are monitored in a timely basis so corrective action can be taken if the rates are too low. Supervisors can help interviewers with an inordinate number of refusals by listening to the introductions they use and providing immediate feedbacks. When all the interviews are over, different fieldworkers' percentage of refusals can be compared to identify the better ones.c. Quality of interviewing
Nusaresearch supervisors observe the quality of Fieldworkers' interviewing through training and feedback from respondents (within QC stage). Interview quality is assesed by the following traits:
(1) The appropriateness of introduction
(2) The precision in which the interviewers ask questions
(3) The ability to probe in an unbiased manner
(4) The ability to ask sensitive questions
(5) Interpersonal skills displayed within interviews...
(6) The manner in which the interview is terminated
Nusaresearch project management team check data's quality by the below indicators:
(1) The recorded data are legible
(2) All instructions, including skip patterns, are followed
(3) The answers to unstructured/ open questions are recorded (4) The answers to unstructured/ open questions are meaningful and complete enough to be coded. (5) Non-responsed items occur infrequently
Door-to-door surveys and Intercept surveys are normally suited for:
Public opinion polling
Brand image and positioning studies
Advertising and brand awareness studies
Usage and preference studies
1. Research Order
Clients provide Nusaresearch with Study objective, target respondents conditions, project constraints (time & budget).
2. Research Proposal
Nusaresearch prepare a Proposal to meet Client's requirements for the study, indicate methodology as Door-to-door survey or Intercept survey, cost and timing plan.
3. Project confirmation and contract signing
Client confirm on project assignment to Nusaresearch with signing contract. Nusaresearch confirm project Schedule to Client and start primary preparation
4. Questionnaire / Screener creation/ translation
Nusaresearch prepare Questionaire/ Screener in local language, prepare Fieldwork plan with incentive scheme to respondents.
5. Fieldwork team meeting and training
Nusaresearch Project management team gather Fieldworkers/ Interviewers for sharing project targets and training interview skills upon main Questionnaire.
6. Fieldwork/ Data Collection
Fieldwork team carry out survey which are in personal interviews scheme. The Fieldworkers randomly choose appropriate respondents at designated intercept locations, or access households to ask for interviews. Incentives are paid directly to respondents by the end of each interview/ complete.
7. Data Input
Filled in paper questionnaires are sent to Nusaresearch office for data input.
8. Data Cleaning and Processing
The stage includes Validation of fieldwork (calling 15 to 25 percent of respondents) combined with Logic check for removing bad samples data. Cleaned data are analysed into GT (Grand Total), Cross Tab (Cross Tabulation) based on Client's requests.
Analyzed data are displayed in graphs and charts in Summary Report or Topline Report.